# Questions tagged [diophantine-approximation]

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34
questions

**93**

votes

**4**answers

15k views

### Is the series $\sum_n|\sin n|^n/n$ convergent?

Problem. Is the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{|\sin(n)|^n}n$$convergent?
(The problem was posed on 22.06.2017 by Ph D students of H.Steinhaus Center of Wroclaw Polytechnica. The promised prize for ...

**132**

votes

**4**answers

12k views

### If $2^x $and $3^x$ are integers, must $x$ be as well?

I'm fascinated by this open problem (if it is indeed still that) and every few years I try to check up on its status. Some background: Let $x$ be a positive real number.
If $n^x$ is an integer for ...

**135**

votes

**6**answers

12k views

### Source and context of $\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 dx/(1+x^2)$?

Possibly the most striking proof of Archimedes's inequality $\pi < 22/7$ is an integral formula for the difference:
$$
\frac{22}{7} - \pi = \int_0^1 (x-x^2)^4 \frac{dx}{1+x^2},
$$
where the ...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

2k views

### Simultaneous diophantine approximation

Let $r(x)$ be the function $x$ mod $1$, i.e. $x$ minus its floor.
Now let $m$ be a given positive integer, and $c$ a vector in $\mathbb{R}^m$ whose components are linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}...

**27**

votes

**3**answers

1k views

### Does $a_n=\prod^n_{k=1}(1-e^{k\alpha \pi i})$ converge to zero when $\alpha$ is irrational?

I came across a problem concerning about the convergence of products. I wonder if the complex series $a_n=\prod^n_{k=1}(1-e^{k\alpha \pi i})$ converges to zero when $\alpha$ is irrational. Of course, ...

**22**

votes

**4**answers

1k views

### Small quotients of smooth numbers

Assume that $N=2^k$, and let $\{n_1, \dots, n_N\}$ denote the set of square-free positive integers which are generated by the first $k$ primes, sorted in increasing order. Question: what is a good ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

534 views

### On the irrationality measure of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n}$

Pick integers $a, b \ge 2$ and let $\xi_{a,b}$ be the sum of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n}$. It is known that $\xi_{2,2}$ is transcendental: I learned a proof of this from notes by M. ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

311 views

### Algorithm for comparing $x + y \cdot \log(z)$ for $x,y,z$ rational?

I'm playing with some methods of comparing two real numbers of the form $x + y \log(z)$, where $x,y,z$ are rational numbers and $z$ is positive. There are various estimates on irrationality measures ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

323 views

### Very badly approximable numbers

Roth's theorem states that for an algbraic number $a$, $a$ is badly approximated by rationals: for every $\alpha>0$ there is $C>0$ such that for $l\in \mathbb Z$, $$d(la,\mathbb Z)>Cl^{-1-\...

**0**

votes

**1**answer

114 views

### Well distributed sequence uniformly over small intervals

Let $a$ an irrational number. Can we say that there is $c>0$ such that for all integer $k,n$ and $1>u>0$,
$$ \frac {1}{n}\sum_{i=k}^{k+n} 1_{( (ia) \in [0,u])}< cu ? $$
where (x) is the ...

**16**

votes

**6**answers

2k views

### Advances and difficulties in effective version of Thue-Roth-Siegel Theorem

A fundamental result in Diophantine approximation, which was largely responsible for Klaus Roth being awarded the Fields Medal in 1958, is the following simple-to-state result:
If $\alpha$ is a real ...

**19**

votes

**4**answers

2k views

### Striking applications of Baker's theorem

I saw that there are many "applications" questions in Mathoverflow; so hopefully this is an appropriate question. I was rather surprised that there were only five questions at Mathoverflow so far with ...

**9**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### The diophantine equation X^2 - Y^2 - Z^2 = +- 1

Hi everybody. I'd like to know if the diophantine equation
(1) $$X^2 - Y^2 - Z^2 = \pm 1$$
has been studied and if the set of its solutions $(X,Y,Z)$ is known. I appreciate any reference. Thank you ...

**17**

votes

**1**answer

625 views

### Is there a bounded sequence of points in the plane with pairwise distances at least $1/\sqrt{|i-j|}$?

Previously I have mentioned the following problem in an addition to the list of Contest problems with connections to deeper mathematics.
Is there an infinite bounded sequence $(P_n) \subset \mathbb{...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

822 views

### Generalizations of the Rayleigh(-Beatty) theorem

For a given irrational number $\alpha>0$ and a real number $\beta$,
the inhomogeneous Beatty sequence
sequence $S_{\alpha,\beta}$ is the set $\lbrace\lfloor n\alpha+\beta\rfloor:n=1,2,\dots\rbrace$
...

**19**

votes

**0**answers

744 views

### Looking for an effective irrationality measure of $\pi$

Most standard summaries of the literature on irrationality measure simply say, e.g., that
$$
\left| \pi - \frac{p}{q}\right| > \frac{1}{q^{7.6063}}
$$
for all sufficiently large $q$, without giving ...

**9**

votes

**0**answers

433 views

### How small parallelograms are we guaranteed to get, when we select the two sides from different plane lattices?

Title question description: Select two lattices $\Lambda_1$ and $\Lambda_2$ (here a lattice=additive free abelian group without accumulation points) of maximal rank two in the real plane. We normalize ...

**6**

votes

**0**answers

861 views

### Can you get Siegel's theorem "for free" from modularity and Mazur's Eisenstein Ideal paper?

There is a well-known theorem of Shafarevich that given a finite set $S$ of primes the number of isomorphism classes of elliptic curves over $\Bbb Q$ with everywhere good reduction outside $S$ is ...

**14**

votes

**2**answers

665 views

### For what real $t$ is $\{n^t : n \geq 1\}$ linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$?

It's straightforward that $t$ must be irrational. I have googled many variations of this question and browsed through some books on transcendental number theory. There is much that is said about when ...

**8**

votes

**2**answers

351 views

### Growth of a linear recurrent sequence

Consider the sequence defined by $a_0=a_1=1$ and $a_n=2a_{n-1}-3a_{n-2}$ for $n\geq 2$. This is the sequence https://oeis.org/A087455.
I would like to prove that $|a_n|>100$ when $n>10$. How ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

557 views

### Do simple, multi-dimensional generalizations of this continued fraction formula exist?

Background
Let $x\in [0,1)\setminus \mathbb{Q}$ have regular continued fraction expansion given by
$$
x = [a_1, a_2, a_3, \dots] = \cfrac{1}{a_1+\cfrac{1}{a_2+\dots}}, \qquad a_i \in \mathbb{N}.
$$
...

**3**

votes

**2**answers

2k views

### Solved cubic Thue equation

Hi everybody. I need to know if the cubic Thue equation $x^3 + x^2y + 3xy^2 - y^3 = \pm 1$ is completely solved. I know that there are effective algorithms to solve any cubic Thue equation and that ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

475 views

### Closest area of research to Transcendental Number Theory or/and Geometry of Numbers?

I am highly interested in doing research in either of
1- Transcendental Number Theory and Algebraic Independence;
2- Diophantine Approximation and Geometry of Numbers.
There is no person working ...

**8**

votes

**1**answer

220 views

### How often a random walk with irrational increments is close to 0?

Let $\omega$ be an irrational number, and $X$ a random variable taking values $1,-1,\omega,-\omega$ each with probability $1/4$. Let then $X_i$ be iid variables with the same law as $X$ and $S_n=\sum_{...

**7**

votes

**3**answers

510 views

### Siegel's theorem with real coefficients

Let $h(x,y)$ be a polynomial with real coefficients. Suppose there are infinitely many integer solutions to $|h(x,y)|<1$. What can I say about $h$?
When $h$ itself has integer coefficients, a ...

**6**

votes

**1**answer

217 views

### A property of rapid sequences of natural numbers

$\newcommand{\IR}{\mathbb R}$
$\newcommand{\IT}{\mathbb T}$
$\newcommand{\w}{\omega}$
$\newcommand{\e}{\varepsilon}$
Taras Banakh and me proceed a long quest answering a question of ougao at ...

**5**

votes

**1**answer

1k views

### Searching for an inhomogeneous diophantine approximation algorithm

Given two nonzero real numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $y/x$ is irrational, a real number $z$ to be approximated, and a tolerance $\epsilon$, what is an algorithm that will provide coprime integers $a$ ...

**2**

votes

**1**answer

240 views

### Approximating rational values in $]0,1[$ by a sum or difference of unit fractions

Let $U=\{\frac{1}{n}: n\in\mathbb{N}\} \cup \{-\frac{1}{n}: n\in\mathbb{N}\}$ be the set of positive and negative unit fractions.
Are there positive integers $m<n \in \mathbb{N}$, such that for ...

**7**

votes

**1**answer

274 views

### Expected symmetry in the diophantine approximations of an irrational number

Given $x \in \mathbb{R}$ we will write $\{x\}$ for the fractional part of $x$ and $\|x\|$ for the distance of $x$ from the nearest integer, in such a way that $\{x\} = x - \lfloor x \rfloor$ and $\|x\|...

**4**

votes

**2**answers

501 views

### Rate of convergence of an irrational rotation

Let $\alpha, \beta \in \mathbb{R}$. Let $\{x\}$ denote the fractional part of $x$ and let $\|x\| = \min(\{x\}, 1-\{x\})$.
If we assume that $\alpha$ is irrational, then there exists an increasing ...

**4**

votes

**1**answer

245 views

### Hermite Lindemann and transcendental reals

This is about compass and straightedge constructions, although I suspect nothing changes if we expand to real numbers algebraic over the rationals.
Anyway, let $E$ be the "constructible numbers," ...

**1**

vote

**1**answer

111 views

### Density of the set of numbers that are "good approximators" to a given real in the sense of Dirichlet's approximation theorem

Let $\mathbb{N}$ be the set of positive integers. Given a set $A\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ we let the (upper) density of $A$ be defined by $$\mu^+(A) = \lim\sup_{n\to\infty}\frac{|A\cap\{1,\ldots,n\}|}{n}.$...

**0**

votes

**0**answers

218 views

### On the irrationality measure of generalized Stoneham numbers

Pick non-zero integers $a,b,c$ with $a,b \ge 2$ and let $\xi_{a,b,c}$ be the sum of the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a^{-b^n} c^{-n}$ (no restriction is made on the sign of $c$); when $b = c$ and $\gcd(a,...

**-2**

votes

**2**answers

210 views

### Precise asymptotic of diophantine approximation

I know that every irrational number $\xi$ can be approximated by rational numbers in such a way that
$$
\left| \xi - \frac{p}{q} \right| \leq \frac{c}{q^2}
$$
for infinitely many choices of $p$ and $q$...